Style Guide


Academic-style essays must be fully referenced using endnotes (i.e. not using footnotes or bracketed in-text citations), with citations formatted as outlined below. Personal-style reflections should also reference any sources referred to in the text. If you have a comment to make in the endnote as well as a citation, make it first, along with page number(s) for any direct quotation(s), then cite the source in full after your comment. If you mention more than one source in your comment, the list of sources that follows should be alphabetical by first author’s surname, then by date. Subsequent mentions of the source should use only author surname(s) and a shortened title, along with page number(s) if relevant. Do not use ibid, op cit and similar formulations. For example:

8 Lindy Orthia uses the Doctor Who term “sociopathetic abscess” to describe this concept (208). Lindy A. Orthia, “‘Sociopathetic abscess’ or ‘yawning chasm’? The absent postcolonial transition in Doctor Who.” The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 45, 2 (2010), 207-225.

9 Orthia, “‘Sociopathetic abscess’ or ‘yawning chasm’”, 208-209.

10 Several authors, notably Lavender but also Nama and Bernardi, have written about this. Daniel Bernardi, Star Trek and History: Race-ing Toward a White Future, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998; Isiah Lavender III, Race in American Science Fiction, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011; Adilifu Nama, Black Space: Imagining Race in Science Fiction Film, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008.

11 See also Nama, Black Space, 116 and 131.

Formats for references, with examples

Journal paper

Author Name(s), “Article title”, Journal Title, Volume, Issue (Year), Pages.

Bruce Buchan and Mary Heath, “Savagery and civilization: from terra nullius to the ‘tide of history’”, Ethnicities, 6, 1 (2006), 5-26.

Hazel V. Carby, “Becoming modern racialized subjects: detours through our pasts to produce ourselves anew”, Cultural Studies, 23, 4 (2009), 624-657.

And for journals only published online, which have no pagination:

Nick Caldwell, “A decolonising Doctor? British SF invasion narratives”, M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture, 2, 2 (1999), online.


Author Name(s), Book Title, Place: Publisher, Year.

Margery Hourihan, Deconstructing the Hero: Literary Theory and Children’s Literature, Abingdon: Routledge, 1997.

John Tulloch and Manuel Alvarado, Doctor Who: The Unfolding Text, London: Macmillan Press, 1983. 

Chapter in edited book

Chapter Author Name(s), “Chapter title”, in Editor Name(s), ed(s)., Book Title, Place: Publisher, Year, Chapter Pages.

Alec Charles, “The ideology of anachronism: television, history and the nature of time”, in David Butler, ed., Time And Relative Dissertations In Space: Critical Perspectives on Doctor Who, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007, 108-122.

Isiah Lavender III, “Critical Race Theory”, in Mark Bould, Andrew M. Butler, Adam Roberts and Sherryl Vint, eds., The Routledge Companion to Science Fiction, Abingdon: Routledge, 2009, 185-193.


Page Author Name(s), “Page title” (Day Month Year of page publication), Website Name. Retrieved Day Month Year at URL.

If some of this information is not available, do your best! Omit it if necessary (for example if there is only one page on the website, making the page title and website name the same). If no date of publication is given, write ‘n.d.’. If no author is acknowledged then reconsider using the source, or write the name of the organisation responsible for the website if this is available. Be as specific as you can in identifying the precise page of the website used, unless the whole website was used for retrieving the information.

Stephen R. Hulse and Laurence Marcus, “The Origins of Doctor Who” (2009), Teletronic: The Television History Site. Retrieved 1 September 2011 at

Nyder, (October 2006), The Evolving Guide to Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Moments in Doctor Who. Retrieved 1 September 2011 at

Newspaper or magazine article

Author Name(s), “Article title”, Newspaper/Magazine Title, Section Title (if appropriate), Day Month Year, Page.

Tim Hunter, “Parallel universe”, The Age, Green Guide, 14 June 2007, 3.

or, if retrieved from online archive:

Ciar Byrne, “Doctor Who gets his first black assistant”, The Independent, 5 July 2006, online.


The name of the program should always be italicised and written without quotation marks:

Doctor Who

Serial names (original series) and episode titles (new series) should also be italicised, and when first mentioned, should be accompanied by the year of first UK broadcast in brackets, unless the date is already mentioned in your discussion:

... he was first seen in Terror of the Autons (1971) ...
... the 2008 season finale, Journey’s End, included ...

In subsequent discussion of the same serial/episode the date should be omitted if it is not necessary.

Serial names for the original series should follow what is listed at the BBC website,, with the exception of Doctor Who and the Silurians, which may be referred to simply as The Silurians.

Serials in the new series, i.e. stories which continue over more than one episode, can be referred to with a slash separating the component episodes:

Aliens of London/World War Three
Daleks in Manhattan/Evolution of the Daleks
Utopia/The Sound of Drums/Last of the Time Lords

If this becomes awkward, the first episode can be used to stand in for the whole provided the meaning is clear, especially when the unity of the serial is unambiguous, e.g.:

Aliens of London
Daleks in Manhattan
but not Utopia given the break in setting and characters between it and The Sound of Drums/Last of the Time Lords

Contributors should assume that readers are familiar with Doctor Who, its characters and stories and major concepts. These basics will be covered in the book’s introduction. But it will enhance the readability of your work if you orient readers briefly to what you are talking about. This may particularly be the case if you are writing about the original series, since many readers may have only seen the new series.


At this stage, contributions can use any of British, US or Australian spelling conventions, but please be consistent.

Quotes and quotation marks
Direct quotes should be bounded by double quotation marks if they are under 30 words long. Quotes 30 words or longer should be set in a separate indented paragraph without quotation marks. Use single quotation marks for scare quotes, and for quotes inside quotes.

Dashes and hyphens
For a parenthetic phrase, use an em-dash with a space either side:

... while Doctor Who has been on air for a long time — indeed, it is the longest-running science fiction television program — it is not as old as ...

For a range of numbers, use a hyphen with no spaces either side:

... the original series ran from 1963-89 ...